The aim of this review was to collect dose(s), dosage schemes, efficacy and safety reports of CBD use in adults from clinical studies. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library for articles published in English between January 1, 2000 and October 25, 2019. The search terms used were related to cannabis and CBD in adults. We identified 25 studies (927 patients; 538 men and 389 women), of which 22 studies were controlled clinical trials (833 patients) and three were observational designs (94 patients) from five countries.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is the second most prevalent active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, a cousin of marijuana, or manufactured in a laboratory. One of hundreds of components in marijuana, CBD does not cause a "high" by itself. According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."
Cannabidiol (CBD) oils are low tetrahydrocannabinol products derived from Cannabis sativa that have become very popular over the past few years. Patients report relief for a variety of conditions, particularly pain, without the intoxicating adverse effects of medical marijuana. In June 2018, the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of rare, severe epilepsy, further putting the spotlight on CBD and hemp oils. There is a growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence to support use of CBD oils for many conditions, suggesting its potential role as another option for treating challenging chronic pain or opioid addiction.
During the last 10 - 15 years, many studies have…showed that purified CBD gives a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Healing was only observed when CBD was given within a very limited dose range, whereas no beneficial effect was achieved at either lower or higher doses. This trait of purified CBD imposes serious obstacles in planning human and animal studies. The aim of the present study was to find a CBD source that could eliminate the bell-shaped dose-response of purified CBD. We found that by using standardized plant extracts … which is highly enriched in CBD and barely contains THC, a correlative anti-inflammatory and anti-pain dose-response could be achieved when applied either intraperitoneally or orally in an inflammatory mouse model.
Although most studies focus on THC be cause of its psychostimulant effects, CBD is another abundant (up to 40 to 50% of total phytocannabinoid content) and yet non psychotropic Cannabis component… CBD enhances antioxidant cellular defenses by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and can counteract THC action intracellularly, through CB1Rs on mitochondrial membranes. Indeed, CBD opposes the THC-induced disruption of oxidative phosphorylation, at the level of complex I, thereby protecting from the deleterious consequences of THC induced reduction in cellular respiration. Notably, these potential cellular and molecular sites of action are not limited to the brain but apply to, e.g., pancreas, muscle, liver, and gut-suggesting that cannabinoids may have applications in diverse settings..